Training & Performance Appraisal HRM NOTES BBA NOTES

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Concept And Meaning Of Training

The next phase of employment program begins with the arrangement of training needs after the newly appointed employees have entered into the organization. The candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties and responsibilities effectively and efficiently. The workers must be trained in order to operate machines, equipments, reduce scraps, and avoid accidents. It is not only the shop floor workers who need training but supervisors, managers and other executives also need to be developed with regard to specific working environment.
Training can be defined as an on-going process of teaching new employees the basis skills they need to perform their task effectively and efficiently. Training is a short term skill development campaign intended to impart the basic skills of work to middle and lower level employees. It focuses on teaching operational skills to the technical persons. Training program is arranged in order to provide basic knowledge and skill specially for non-managerial employees. The training arrangement involves a systematic procedures that helps to increase the knowledge and skills of newly appointed employees and also for existing employees to develop them according to change in environment. It develops the technical know-how so as to increase employee’s operating skills for performing specific job with proficiency.
Therefore, it can be said that training refers to a systematic procedure designed to improve performance at the individual, group or organizational level. Improved performance implies that there has been considerable change in skill, attitudes, knowledge and behavior of employees.

 

Training Process Or Steps Involved For Conducting Training

Training is not a one sort affair; rather it is a step-by-step process that will complete only after successful completion of given sequential activities.

1. Identifying Training Needs

Training need is a difference between standard performance and actual performance. Hence, it tries to bridge the gap between standard performance and actual performance. The gap clearly underlines the need for training of employees. Hence, under this phase, the gap is identified in order to assess the training needs.

 

2. Establish Specific Objectives

After the identification of training needs, the most crucial task is to determine the objectives of training. Hence, the primary purpose of training should focus to bridge the gap between standard performance and actual performance. This can be done through setting training objectives. Thus, basic objective of training is to bring proper match between man and the job.

 

3. Select Appropriate Methods

Training methods are desired means of attaining training objectives. After the determination of training needs and specification of objectives, an appropriate training method is to be identified and selected to achieve the stated objectives. There are number of training methods available but their suitability is judged as per the need of organizational training needs.

 

4. Implement Programs

After the selection of an appropriate method, the actual functioning takes place. Under this step, the prepared plans and programs are implemented to get the desired output. Under it, employees are trained to develop for better performance of organizational activities.

 

5. Evaluate Program

It consists of an evaluation of various aspects of training in order to know whether the training program was effective. In other words, it refers to the training utility in terms of effect of training on employee’s’ performance.

 

6. Feedback

Finally, a feedback mechanism is created in order to identify the weak areas in the training program and improve the same in future. For this purpose, information relating to class room, food, lodging etc. are obtained from participants. The obtained information, then, tabulated, evaluated, and analyzed in order to mark weak areas of training programs and for future improvements.

 

Techniques Or Methods Of Training

After the determination of training needs, setting, training objectives and designing training programs, the training programs need to be implemented. In this regard, we can assume numbers of training methods. The selection of best method depends upon the purpose and objective of training. The most commonly used methods of training are as follows:

 

1. On-the-job Training (OJT)

OJT is the most commonly used method of employee training which is concerned with the philosophy, “Learning by doing”. OJT method is suitable for imparting operative or technical skills to operative personnel. This places the employees in the actual work environment and trainees are provided with knowledge, skill and abilities of performing different tasks. They get such knowledge while using actual machines and equipments. Those jobs which are either difficult to stimulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing are trained through on-the-job training method. Following methods may be used under on-the-job training:

 

– Apprenticeship training

– Job instruction training

– Program instruction

– Coaching and counseling

– Internship

 

2. Off-the-job Training

Off-the-job training is another method of employee training which is concerned with the arrangements organized away from organizational work station. It takes place outside the work station and is mostly classroom base. The trainees focus on learning experience by going under training outside the organizational work place. The trainees are removed from the stress and demands of workplace as the training program is organized away from organizational workplace. It consists of a number of techniques classroom lectures, films, demonstration, case studies and other simulation exercises. It is concerned with providing both knowledge and skills in doing certain jobs. The workers are free of tension and work hurdles when they are learning, so that they can learn better. Following methods may be used under off-the-job training:

 

– Class room lecturers

– Films

– Simulation exercise

– Program instruction.

 

 

 

Methods Of Evaluating Training Effectiveness

A properly designed and conducted method of evaluation provides useful insights of the effectiveness of the training. This also enables an organization to monitor and modify the training program.

Some useful methods of evaluating training effectiveness are as follows:

 

1. Observation Method

Observation conceives the ideas of closely observing the activities during the delivery of training program. Under this method, direct observation tales place on order to assess the changed knowledge, skills and attitudes of the participants. During observation, the errors and mistakes in actual work situation are carefully observed and recorded. Finally, the effectiveness of training can be evaluated through the reaction of trainees.

 

2. Test-retest Method

Test-retest method is another important method of evaluating training effectiveness. Under this method, the trainees are given a test before the conduction of training program to assess their existing knowledge, skills and attitudes. And after training program also, a similar test is conducted to assess their changed behavior. Then the comparison is made between trainees’ level of knowledge, skills and attitudes before and after the training program. If a considerable change is observed in the behavioral interaction of the trainees, the training is said to be effective.

 

3. Pre-post Performance

It is similar to the pre-test method. But here, the concentration is given on the analysis or evaluation of actual job performance. Under this method, the actual job performance is first rated before any training is provided. After the training program is completed, the participant’s job performance is evaluated. Then the increased performance of the trainees is attributed to the instruction.

 

4. Experimental Control Method

In this method of evaluating training effectiveness, participants are first divided into two groups, the first is control group and the second is experimental group. Members of control group work on the job but they do not go under any instruction, they have no clear guidance at work. On the other hand, members of the experimental group are given the instruction and guidance at work. Finally, at the conclusion of training, the performance of these two groups is reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the performance of experimental group will have improved substantially more than that of controlled group. On the other hand, if the difference remains unchanged, the training will be considered unsuccessful.

 

Advantages Of On-the-job Training (OJT)

On-the-job training (OJT) has following advantages:

 

1. Simplicity

OJT is useful and simple to learn the jobs that can be learned by watching and doing. Under it, the trainer need not explain and analyze the job detail, as employees can learn it by observing and doing it in the actual work station.

 

2. Economy

OJT is economical in the sense that it does not require extra cost burden for arranging training needs. Moreover, it does not require separate training space to provide training.

 

3. Actual Work Station

OJT is conducted at the actual work station; hence, employees can get first hand experience from the job as they learn it through actual equipments and materials.

 

4. Immediate Productivity

Since trainees are involved in actual work process, quick learning and immediate productivity will be obtained from the work performed by the trainees.

 

5. Quick Learning

OJT provides a favorable environment for quick learning. This is because trainees are involved in actual work process.

 

6. Multi-skill

As it is a practical approach, it develops multi-skill in trainees. The employees can get quick feedback about correctness of their performance.

 

Drawbacks Or Disadvantages Of On-the-job Training (OJT)

The following are disadvantages of on-the-job training (OJT)

 

1. Low Productivity

The trainees are taken at the actual work station for training; hence, they are in the process of learning skills. AS a result, the organizational productivity will be lower.

 

2. Errors On Production

Since the trainees are not involved with production activities, the will be the possibility of errors on production activities. The goods produced by trainees will be qualitative.

 

3. Costly

OJT method is costly in the sense that the workers are disturbed by training activities; the goods produced by the trainees will have less quality and there will be chances of damage of goods. These all result in higher cost of production.

 

4. Disturbance

Disturbance may arise during the work process as trainees are in learning phase. The existing workers may feel disturbed due to the trainees and the supervisors.

 

5. Possibility Of Accidents

Under OJT, the learners are directly involved in production process who do not have adequate knowledge and skill of working with the given equipments and materials. Hence, the possibility of accidents exists in the work station.

 

Concept And Meaning Of Performance Appraisal

The work performed by the different employees differs in many aspects due to the difference in their backgrounds, experiences, knowledge, skills, abilities and aptitudes. Such differences determine the need of training and development activities. So, it is necessary for management to identify such differences so that employees having better job performance ability, skills and knowledge can be rewarded in one hand, and the wrong placements of the employees may be checked through transfer or punishments on other hand. In this regard, performance appraisal provides a measure in order to know the level of performance so that the employee may improve his/her performance.

 

Performance appraisal is a process of identifying, measuring and managing employee’s performance in order to enhance organizational efficiency and effectiveness. It is a merit rating that denotes the appraisal of the performance of the employees in an organization. Performance appraisal systematically evaluates the personality and performance of each employee so that the productivity can be measured in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. The primary purpose of performance appraisal is to facilitate the orderly determination of an employee’s worth in comparison to his/her fellow employees and expected level of performance. It provides information relating to various aspects of an individual upon which promotion, transfer and salary decisions can be made. It also provides an opportunity to review employee’s work related behavior.
More precisely, performance appraisal can be defined as a systematic evaluation of an employee’s current, or past performance as well as future potentials by supervisors or those familiar with his/her performance. It defines an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes which help reward, motivate, and empower employees at work. It also helps to identify future potentialities of an individual.

 

Significance Or Importance Of Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal provides important and useful information for the assessment of employee’s skill, knowledge, ability and overall job performance. The following are the points which indicate the importance of performance appraisal in an organization:

 

1. Performance appraisal helps supervisors to assess the work performance of their subordinates.

2. Performance appraisal helps to assess the training and development needs of employees.

3. Performance appraisal provides grounds for employees to correct their mistakes, and it also provides proper guidance and criticism for employee’s development.

4. Performance appraisal provides reward for better performance.

5. Performance appraisal helps to improve the communication system of the organization

6. Performance appraisal evaluates whether human resource programs being implemented in the organization have been effective.

7. Performance appraisal helps to prepare pay structure for each employee working in the organization.

8. Performance appraisal helps to review the potentiality of employees so that their future capability is anticipated..

 

 

Performance Appraisal Process

Performance appraisal is a process through which performance deficiencies and actions to ratify such deficiencies. It is a continuous process of the following phases:

 

1.     Establishment Of Performance Standards

It is concerned with the establishment of predetermined performance standards that will help in comparing the actual performance of the employees. It can be done through the formulation of human resource planning and job analysis.

 

2.     Communication Of Standards To Employees

Under this step, the set performance standard is communicated to the concerned employees. The employees are assigned with required duties, responsibilities and authorities to do the tasks effectively and efficiently so that the expected standard will be met. Moreover, it provides information relating to what is to be done and how well the task is performed. The communication should be two-way process so that the implementation can be effective.

 

3.      Measure Actual Performance

The actual performance of an individual is measured in terms of its efficiency and effectiveness. The performance is measured on the basis of predefined standards. The information related to actual performance is collected through the application of different qualitative and quantitative techniques; and the relevant criteria for comparison will be determine on the basis of such information.

 

4.     Comparison Of Actual Performance With Standards

This step is concerned with the comparison of actual performance with predetermined  standards. It is determined in terms of whether present standard is maintained. The information provided by the report on actual performance is compared with standards in order to identify performance deviations.

 

5.     Discuss Appraisal With The Employee

This step of performance appraisal process finds out the deviation occurred in actual performance. It also identifies the extent of differences and the causes of such differences. Then the findings of performance appraisal is to discussed with the concerned employees to locate the measure/solution.

 

6.      Corrective Action

If performance differs with the predetermined standards, then a corrective action is initiated in order to improve employee’s performance in future. Corrections are remedial measures which are taken to bridge the gap between predetermined and actual performance. The corrective actions can be Do Nothing, Correct Deviations, Change Standards.

Concept And Meaning Of Training

The next phase of employment program begins with the arrangement of training needs after the newly appointed employees have entered into the organization. The candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties and responsibilities effectively and efficiently. The workers must be trained in order to operate machines, equipments, reduce scraps, and avoid accidents. It is not only the shop floor workers who need training but supervisors, managers and other executives also need to be developed with regard to specific working environment.
Training can be defined as an on-going process of teaching new employees the basis skills they need to perform their task effectively and efficiently. Training is a short term skill development campaign intended to impart the basic skills of work to middle and lower level employees. It focuses on teaching operational skills to the technical persons. Training program is arranged in order to provide basic knowledge and skill specially for non-managerial employees. The training arrangement involves a systematic procedures that helps to increase the knowledge and skills of newly appointed employees and also for existing employees to develop them according to change in environment. It develops the technical know-how so as to increase employee’s operating skills for performing specific job with proficiency.
Therefore, it can be said that training refers to a systematic procedure designed to improve performance at the individual, group or organizational level. Improved performance implies that there has been considerable change in skill, attitudes, knowledge and behavior of employees.

 

Training Process Or Steps Involved For Conducting Training

 

Training is not a one sort affair; rather it is a step-by-step process that will complete only after successful completion of given sequential activities.

 

1. Identifying Training Needs

Training need is a difference between standard performance and actual performance. Hence, it tries to bridge the gap between standard performance and actual performance. The gap clearly underlines the need for training of employees. Hence, under this phase, the gap is identified in order to assess the training needs.

 

2. Establish Specific Objectives

After the identification of training needs, the most crucial task is to determine the objectives of training. Hence, the primary purpose of training should focus to bridge the gap between standard performance and actual performance. This can be done through setting training objectives. Thus, basic objective of training is to bring proper match between man and the job.

 

3. Select Appropriate Methods

Training methods are desired means of attaining training objectives. After the determination of training needs and specification of objectives, an appropriate training method is to be identified and selected to achieve the stated objectives. There are number of training methods available but their suitability is judged as per the need of organizational training needs.

 

4. Implement Programs

After the selection of an appropriate method, the actual functioning takes place. Under this step, the prepared plans and programs are implemented to get the desired output. Under it, employees are trained to develop for better performance of organizational activities.

 

5. Evaluate Program

It consists of an evaluation of various aspects of training in order to know whether the training program was effective. In other words, it refers to the training utility in terms of effect of training on employes’ performance.

 

6. Feedback

Finally, a feedback mechanism is created in order to identify the weak areas in the training program and improve the same in future. For this purpose, information relating to class room, food, lodging etc. are obtained from participants. The obtained information, then, tabulated, evaluated, and analyzed in order to mark weak areas of training programs and for future improvements.

 

Techniques Or Methods Of Training

After the determination of training needs, setting, training objectives and designing training programs, the training programs need to be implemented. In this regard, we can assume numbers of training methods. The selection of best method depends upon the purpose and objective of training. The most commonly used methods of training are as follows:

 

1. On-the-job Training (OJT)

OJT is the most commonly used method of employee training which is concerned with the philosophy, “Learning by doing”. OJT method is suitable for imparting operative or technical skills to operative personnel. This places the employees in the actual work environment and trainees are provided with knowledge, skill and abilities of performing different tasks. They get such knowledge while using actual machines and equipments. Those jobs which are either difficult to stimulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing are trained through on-the-job training method. Following methods may be used under on-the-job training:

 

– Apprenticeship training

– Job instruction training

– Program instruction

– Coaching and counseling

– Internship

 

2. Off-the-job Training

Off-the-job training is another method of employee training which is concerned with the arrangements organized away from organizational work station. It takes place outside the work station and is mostly classroom base. The trainees focus on learning experience by going under training outside the organizational work place. The trainees are removed from the stress and demands of workplace as the training program is organized away from organizational workplace. It consists of a number of techniques classroom lectures, films, demonstration, case studies and other simulation exercises. It is concerned with providing both knowledge and skills in doing certain jobs. The workers are free of tension and work hurdles when they are learning, so that they can learn better. Following methods may be used under off-the-job training:

 

– Class room lecturers

– Films

– Simulation exercise

– Program instruction.

 

 

 

Methods Of Evaluating Training Effectiveness

A properly designed and conducted method of evaluation provides useful insights of the effectiveness of the training. This also enables an organization to monitor and modify the training program.

Some useful methods of evaluating training effectiveness are as follows:

 

1. Observation Method

Observation conceives the ideas of closely observing the activities during the delivery of training program. Under this method, direct observation tales place on order to assess the changed knowledge, skills and attitudes of the participants. During observation, the errors and mistakes in actual work situation are carefully observed and recorded. Finally, the effectiveness of training can be evaluated through the reaction of trainees.

 

2. Test-retest Method

Test-retest method is another important method of evaluating training effectiveness. Under this method, the trainees are given a test before the conduction of training program to assess their existing knowledge, skills and attitudes. And after training program also, a similar test is conducted to assess their changed behavior. Then the comparison is made between trainees’ level of knowledge, skills and attitudes before and after the training program. If a considerable change is observed in the behavioral interaction of the trainees, the training is said to be effective.

 

3. Pre-post Performance

It is similar to the pre-test method. But here, the concentration is given on the analysis or evaluation of actual job performance. Under this method, the actual job performance is first rated before any training is provided. After the training program is completed, the participant’s job performance is evaluated. Then the increased performance of the trainees is attributed to the instruction.

 

4. Experimental Control Method

In this method of evaluating training effectiveness, participants are first divided into two groups, the first is control group and the second is experimental group. Members of control group work on the job but they do not go under any instruction, they have no clear guidance at work. On the other hand, members of the experimental group are given the instruction and guidance at work. Finally, at the conclusion of training, the performance of these two groups is reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the performance of experimental group will have improved substantially more than that of controlled group. On the other hand, if the difference remains unchanged, the training will be considered unsuccessful.

 

Advantages Of On-the-job Training (OJT)

On-the-job training (OJT) has following advantages:

 

1. Simplicity

OJT is useful and simple to learn the jobs that can be learned by watching and doing. Under it, the trainer need not explain and analyze the job detail, as employees can learn it by observing and doing it in the actual work station.

 

2. Economy

OJT is economical in the sense that it does not require extra cost burden for arranging training needs. Moreover, it does not require separate training space to provide training.

 

3. Actual Work Station

OJT is conducted at the actual work station; hence, employees can get first hand experience from the job as they learn it through actual equipments and materials.

 

4. Immediate Productivity

Since trainees are involved in actual work process, quick learning and immediate productivity will be obtained from the work performed by the trainees.

 

5. Quick Learning

OJT provides a favorable environment for quick learning. This is because trainees are involved in actual work process.

 

6. Multi-skill

As it is a practical approach, it develops multi-skill in trainees. The employees can get quick feedback about correctness of their performance.

 

Drawbacks Or Disadvantages Of On-the-job Training (OJT)

The following are disadvantages of on-the-job training (OJT)

 

1. Low Productivity

The trainees are taken at the actual work station for training; hence, they are in the process of learning skills. AS a result, the organizational productivity will be lower.

 

2. Errors On Production

Since the trainees are not involved with production activities, the will be the possibility of errors on production activities. The goods produced by trainees will be qualitative.

 

 

 

3. Costly

OJT method is costly in the sense that the workers are disturbed by training activities; the goods produced by the trainees will have less quality and there will be chances of damage of goods. These all result in higher cost of production.

 

4. Disturbance

Disturbance may arise during the work process as trainees are in learning phase. The existing workers may feel disturbed due to the trainees and the supervisors.

 

5. Possibility Of Accidents

Under OJT, the learners are directly involved in production process who do not have adequate knowledge and skill of working with the given equipments and materials. Hence, the possibility of accidents exists in the work station.

 

Concept And Meaning Of Performance Appraisal

The work performed by the different employees differs in many aspects due to the difference in their backgrounds, experiences, knowledge, skills, abilities and aptitudes. Such differences determine the need of training and development activities. So, it is necessary for management to identify such differences so that employees having better job performance ability, skills and knowledge can be rewarded in one hand, and the wrong placements of the employees may be checked through transfer or punishments on other hand. In this regard, performance appraisal provides a measure in order to know the level of performance so that the employee may improve his/her performance.

 

Performance appraisal is a process of identifying, measuring and managing employee’s performance in order to enhance organizational efficiency and effectiveness. It is a merit rating that denotes the appraisal of the performance of the employees in an organization. Performance appraisal systematically evaluates the personality and performance of each employee so that the productivity can be measured in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. The primary purpose of performance appraisal is to facilitate the orderly determination of an employee’s worth in comparison to his/her fellow employees and expected level of performance. It provides information relating to various aspects of an individual upon which promotion, transfer and salary decisions can be made. It also provides an opportunity to review employee’s work related behavior.
More precisely, performance appraisal can be defined as a systematic evaluation of an employee’s current, or past performance as well as future potentials by supervisors or those familiar with his/her performance. It defines an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes which help reward, motivate, and empower employees at work. It also helps to identify future potentialities of an individual.

 

Significance Or Importance Of Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal provides important and useful information for the assessment of employee’s skill, knowledge, ability and overall job performance. The following are the points which indicate the importance of performance appraisal in an organization:

 

1. Performance appraisal helps supervisors to assess the work performance of their subordinates.

 

2. Performance appraisal helps to assess the training and development needs of employees.

 

3. Performance appraisal provides grounds for employees to correct their mistakes, and it also provides proper guidance and criticism for employee’s development.

 

4. Performance appraisal provides reward for better performance.

 

 

5. Performance appraisal helps to improve the communication system of the organization

 

6. Performance appraisal evaluates whether human resource programs being implemented in the organization have been effective.

 

7. Performance appraisal helps to prepare pay structure for each employee working in the organization.

 

8. Performance appraisal helps to review the potentiality of employees so that their future capability is anticipated..

 

 

Performance Appraisal Process

Performance appraisal is a process through which performance deficiencies and actions to ratify such deficiencies. It is a continuous process of the following phases:

 

1.     Establishment Of Performance Standards

It is concerned with the establishment of predetermined performance standards that will help in comparing the actual performance of the employees. It can be done through the formulation of human resource planning and job analysis.

 

2.     Communication Of Standards To Employees

Under this step, the set performance standard is communicated to the concerned employees. The employees are assigned with required duties, responsibilities and authorities to do the tasks effectively and efficiently so that the expected standard will be met. Moreover, it provides information relating to what is to be done and how well the task is performed. The communication should be two-way process so that the implementation can be effective.

 

3.      Measure Actual Performance

The actual performance of an individual is measured in terms of its efficiency and effectiveness. The performance is measured on the basis of predefined standards. The information related to actual performance is collected through the application of different qualitative and quantitative techniques; and the relevant criteria for comparison will be determine on the basis of such information.

 

4.     Comparison Of Actual Performance With Standards

This step is concerned with the comparison of actual performance with predetermined  standards. It is determined in terms of whether present standard is maintained. The information provided by the report on actual performance is compared with standards in order to identify performance deviations.

 

5.     Discuss Appraisal With The Employee

This step of performance appraisal process finds out the deviation occurred in actual performance. It also identifies the extent of differences and the causes of such differences. Then the findings of performance appraisal is to discussed with the concerned employees to locate the measure/solution.

 

6.      Corrective Action

If performance differs with the predetermined standards, then a corrective action is initiated in order to improve employee’s performance in future. Corrections are remedial measures which are taken to bridge the gap between predetermined and actual performance. The corrective actions can be Do Nothing, Correct Deviations, Change Standards.

 


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